Duggers in David Lodge’s Thinks… is associated with both chaos theory and quantum mechanics. These are difficult scientific theories which can be made easier to understand through narrativization, often by means of thought experiments. These links may help get the basics of the theories, which may help clarify what role Duggers plays in the novel.
Schrodinger’s Cat, explained in New Scientist’s “One-Minute Physics” video; and a brief introduction to Chaos Theory (about 4:30 long). For Chaos, Michael Crichton includes a very succinct and clear explanation in Jurassic Park; here is the relevant excerpt. Note that though Ian Malcolm in the novel (and movie) analyzes the events in Jurassic Park in terms of chaos, there is just a loose analogy between the physics of chaos and the disastrous failures of oversight that occur on the island.